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  2. It is necessary to manage the health professional   (04/01/2011)

This news article was originally written in Spanish. It has been automatically translated for your convenience. Reasonable efforts have been made to provide an accurate translation, however, no automated translation is perfect nor is it intended to replace a human translator. The original article in Spanish can be viewed at Es necesario gestionar la higiene de forma profesional

Food safety is part of its own definition

It is necessary to manage the health professional

on January 4, 2011

During the handling of food hygiene is essential to ensure the safety, it is therefore necessary to manage it professionally. Establish a plan that includes procedures validated with clear objectives to cover methodological aspects of design and control, are the key.
Xavier Borràs

Food safety is part of its own definition. However, to produce it, there are risks that are not considered. We are specifically talking about the risks associated with failures in hygiene. Hygiene is a natural condition during the manipulation of food but in day to day are blurring their priority, its value and its maintenance. It is necessary to professionalize cleaning and managing the activity as a venture in itself.

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The asceptia in the handling of food is the key to not pollute them.

Legislation

The basic legislative framework which applies to the hygiene of the food industry in Spain is, of course, European. Consists of the following legislative provisions: Directive 93/43/EEC, incorporated into Spanish right in R.D. 2207/95, which regulates food standards of hygiene. On the other hand, in various legislative provisions specific, R.D. 1904/93, R.D. 1679/94, decision 2001/471/EEC, etc. is established the obligation to maintain continuous control systems based on the methodology HACCP (analysis system of orders and critical Control point).

Both the R.D.2207/95 and the Codex Alimentarius Commission consider general aspects of hygiene in food industries and whose previous implementation is essential to the further development of the HACCP. These basic and prior conditions are referred to as "Prerequisites", or "Prerequisites". I.e., these prerequisites are present in most of the stages of production of the industries, regardless of the sector in which to develop their activity, and are aimed at control of General hazards.

Definition of health

The concept of food hygiene includes a number of routines that must be made to handle food. The objective of these routines is to prevent potential damage to the health. Food can be a medium transmitter of many diseases, and are, under favourable circumstances, a growth medium for various types of bacteria, both inside and outside of the food. These pathogens are causing the so-called food poisoning.

Food can be a medium transmitter of many diseases, and a means of growth for various types of bacteria

Unguarded food can easily become a means of spreading of diseases, from the moment of its production to its consumer foods are constantly exposed to the possible contamination, whether by natural or as a result of human intervention.

The food presented an ideal medium for the growth of certain microorganisms, such as bacteria, spores, etc. Due to the origin of their presence in food, these microbes is can be divided into the internal structures of the food, either incorporated into the food during processing or manipulation.

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Foods are an ideal way to raise elements harmful bacteria or spores.

In relation to the human consumption of food, micro-organisms can be "pathogens", i.e., disease-causing or "saprophytic", alterantes structures, flavors or odors. The periods of incubation of a large part of them reach short incubation periods: between two and ten hours. Some of the agencies have low DMI (minimal Infectiva dose) and hygiene is the only guarantee that the food is kept in good condition.

Temperature and conservation

A basic rule is to store and prepare food to proper temperatures. With regard to these, must respond to these general rules: 5 ° C the microorganisms are in period of lethargy and inhibit its growth. For the death of some microorganisms, it is necessary that the food is at a temperature of less than 3 ° C for a maximum three days (this is the rule to remove the fish anisakis). When you get down to temperatures below - 18 ° C food should not be stored more than four months.

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An Apple affected by spores.

Between 5 ° C to 60 ° C (the temperature depends on the food) microorganisms activated its development and multiply. In this case, the food should not be without consuming more than 24 hours. Between 65 ° C and 100 ° C are killed much of the microorganisms. But not all. During digestion, hydrochloric acid the stomach that secretes is also capable of eliminating many bacteria and microorganisms, but, once again, not all.

Most common diseases

Salmonella is a disease infectious produced by enterobacteria in the genus Salmonella resistant to hydrochloric acid and high temperatures. Also what is shigellosis, or Angiomatosis dysentery, listeriosis, e. coli gastroenteritis, perhaps the bacteria more studied by humans; enteritis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica; diarrhoea by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, enteritis caused by Campylobacter, acute food poisoning as the botulism (poisoning by waste from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum), and Staphylococcal intoxication. Also a poor hygiene can lead to chronic poisoning caused by fungi, or viruses like hepatitis A.

Treatment in origin

The pathogenic micro-organisms have a selective form of proliferation. Some grow in low temperatures, others need moisture, others of heat, etc. Precautions should exercise extreme when it comes to the production of food in large masses, which is typical of the food industry. In this case, the processes of preparation and processing of food may have varying degrees of susceptibility of be contaminated. These parts of the process are called: "hot spots" and generally constitute points of observation by part of the authorities and extreme vigilance by food manufacturers.

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The Salmonella bacteria.

Hygiene in the preparation

The preparation of its cooked or canned food should bear in mind provided that the human being is the main source of germs. It is for this reason that the hygiene in these cases is forced to Cook, and cannot be guaranteed provided that follow certain rules and steps. Some of the most important are:

The hands must be clean at all times prior to manipulation and after any stop or rest. This is enough to wash their hands with water and SOAP, but never use a disinfectant, and especially when the process has been interrupted for cooked. Nails must be perfectly clean at all times.

The instrumental (knives, cutting, boards containers, etc.) must have clean surfaces, without drops or humidity. in each step or change of food should ejuagarse with clean water. Instruments in contact with raw foods should be cleaned with a high daily frequency.

Fresh meat may have a certain degree of pollution and cooking eliminates certain colonies of bacteria. As for water, as minimum hygiene measure must be boiled for at least twenty minutes. The milk must be pasteurized. In the majority of food is removed a large population of pathogens if she is reach 70 ° C in all the mass of food. A good reheating of food before eating it makes that more time grocery with guarantees of hygiene is maintained: especially meat and broths.

A rule to take into account is not to mix raw foods with cooked food; If the raw along with the cooked, the latter, which by the cooking process have already decreased the population of disease-causing organisms, is polluted with extreme speed.

Food preparation

The preparation of its cooked or canned food should bear in mind provided that the human being is the main source of germs. It is for this reason that the hygiene in these cases is forced to Cook, and cannot be guaranteed provided that follow certain rules and steps. Some of the most important are:

· The hands must be clean at all times prior to manipulation and after any stop or rest. This is enough to wash their hands with water and SOAP, but never use a disinfectant, and especially when the process has been interrupted for cooked. Nails must be perfectly clean at all times.

· The instrumental (knives, cutting, boards containers, etc.) must have clean surfaces, without drops or humidity. in each step or change of food should ejuagarse with clean water. Instruments in contact with raw foods should be cleaned with a high daily frequency.

· Fresh meat may have a certain degree of pollution and cooking eliminates certain colonies of bacteria. As for water, as minimum hygiene measure must be boiled for at least twenty minutes. The milk must be pasteurized. In the majority of food is removed a large population of pathogens if she is reach 70 ° C in all the mass of food. A good reheating of food before eating it makes that more time grocery with guarantees of hygiene is maintained: especially meat and broths.

· A rule to take into account is not to mix raw foods with cooked food; If the raw along with the cooked, the latter, which by the cooking process have already decreased the population of disease-causing organisms, is polluted with extreme speed.

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