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Boletín de la FAO

Procesamiento de frutas y hortalizas

Horticom News08/02/2005

8 de febrero de 2005

En el texto extendido y en inglés se puede leer el boletín de la FAO. Éste comienza describiendo las características generales de las frutas y hortalizas y su composición química y valores alimenticios. Después de presentar los factores que influyen en su deterioro, se analizan los métodos tradicionales y modernos para la preservación de alimentos.

Por Mircea Enachescu Dauthy - Consultor

Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación, FAO

Roma, 1995

El boletín se encuentra en ingles y puede encontrarse en http://www.fao.org/docrep/V5030E/V5030E00.htm#Contents

Contiene la siguiente información:

Chapter I Introduction

1.1 General introduction
1.2 Importance of fruit and vegetables in world agriculture
1.3 What fruit and vegetables can be processed?
1.4 Processing planning
1.5 Location
1.6 Processing systems
1.7 Choice of processing technologies for developing countries
1.8 Fruit and vegetables - global marketing view

Chapter 2 General properties of fruit and vegetables; chemical composition and nutritional aspects; structural features

2.1 General properties
2.2 Chemical composition
2.3 Activities of living systems
2.4 Stability of nutrients
2.5 Structural features

Chapter 3 Deterioration factors and their control

3.1 Enzymic changes
3.2 Chemical changes
3.3 Physical changes
3.4 Biological changes

Chapter 4 Methods of reducing deterioration

4.1 Technical methods of reducing food deterioration
4.2 Procedures for fruit and vegetable preservation
4.3 Combined preservation procedures

Chapter 5 General procedures for fruit and vegetable preservation

5.1 Fresh storage
5.2 Preservation by reduction of water content: drying/dehydration and concentration
5.3 Chemical preservation
5.4 Preservation of vegetables by acidification
5.5 Preservation with sugar
5.6 Heat preservation/heat processing
5.7 Food irradiation

Chapter 6 Auxiliary raw materials

6.1 Water
6.2 Sweeteners
6.3 Salt
6.4 Food acids
6.5 Pectic preparations
6.6 Intensive sweeteners

Chapter 7 Packaging materials

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Protection of food by packaging materials
7.3 Films and foils; plastics
7.4 Glass containers
7.5 Paper packaging
7.6 "Tin can"/tinplate

Chapter 8 Fruit specific preservation technologies

8.1 Fruit quality
8.2 Harvesting and preprocessing
8.3 Fresh fruit storage
8.4 Fruit drying and dehydration technology
8.5 Technology of semi-processed fruit products
8.6 Fruit sugar preserves technology; jams, jellies, marmalade, fruit paste
8.7 Fruit juice technologies
8.8 Banana and plantain processing technologies
8.9 Mango and guava processing technologies
8.10 Recent trends in fruit and vegetable processing

Chapter 9 Vegetable specific processing technologies

9.1 Vegetables varieties
9.2 Harvesting and pre-processing
9.3 Fresh vegetable storage
9.4 Vegetable drying/dehydration
9.5 Vegetable juices and concentrated products
9.6 Pickles and sauerkraut technology
9.7 Vegetable canning

Chapter 10 Quality control/quality assurance and international trade; good manufacturing practices (gmp); hygiene requirements; hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP)

10.1 Quality control/quality assurance and international trade
10.2 Good manufacturing practices (gmp); hygiene requirements
10.3 Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP)

Chapter 11 Fruit and vegetable processing units - general approach; preliminary study; how to invest, install and operate a processing centre; modular units: from farm/family to community/business level

11.1 Preliminary study
11.2 How to prepare, start and operate a fruit and vegetable processing centre
11.3 Fruit and vegetable processing centre - module "level 5" family level
11.4 Fruit and vegetable processing unit - module "level 4" farm and/or community level
11.5 Fruit and vegetable processing unit - module "level 3" community and / or entrepreneurial level
11.6 Fruit and vegetable processing unit - module "level 2" business level
11.7 Fruit and vegetable processing centre - module "level 1" business and/or national level
11.8 Overall raw material consumption data / yield for fruit and vegetable processed products - approximate data
11.9 Fruit and vegetable processing centre - quality control sheet daily recording sheet finished products defects

Bibliography

Appendix I - Fruit and vegetable processing flow-sheets

Appendix II - Standards for grades of dried apricots

Appendix III - Recipe guidelines; dried fruit and vegetables

Appendix IV - Complete units and various equipment and material for fruit and vegetable processing 

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