￼INDUSTRY 4.0 The introduction of global networks and Internet has involved a new paradigm shift 4.0: FROM THE PHILOSOPHY to the real workshop In this work, a new industrial scenario will be described, de ning what many authors agree to identify as the fourth industrial revolution or Industry 4.0. This new scenario, which is already implemented in some factories, is targeted to be the common reality of European Industry in the next 2020. The rst time that the term Industry 4.0 is used is in Germany as a new vi- sion of the industry in which all pro- cesses are connected through the Internet of Things (IoT). This concept, which has become a brand, tries to explain a deep transformation of the industry and has been rede ned as the fourth industrial revolution. > J.I. Arrizubieta, G. Urbikain, J.E. Ruiz, M. Cortina, E. Ukar, A. Lamikiz, Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) 48<< Historically, the rst Industry revolution began around 1784 with the invention of the rst mechanical loom (based on the introduction of mechanical equipment driven by steam power). Later, the appearance of the rst conveyor belt in the late nineteenth century was the precursor of the second industrial revolution (allowing the development of mass production by division of tasks and use of electric power). Finally, as a result of the appearance of the computer and programmable logic con- troller (PLC) in 1980’s, a third industrial is identi ed. The introduction of global networks and Internet has involved a new paradigm shift, allowing the introduction of new elements such as the process connectivity or the massive production data storage. Thus, once the manufacturing equipments have been automated, the new challenge is to interconnect all the requi- red systems in order to create the Intelligent Factory, where any relevant data can be accessed at any time in order to adapt the production lines to any external condition or requirement.