The implementation of sustainable irrigation will contribute to enhance the agricultural activity as a CO2 sink
July 2, 2009
One of the most remarkable findings of Congress specifically notes that "the implementation of sustainable irrigation will contribute to enhance the agricultural activity as a sink of CO2, to reduce erosion and desertification and, as a result, minimize the negative impact of climate change".
Irrigation, salinity, drainage and environmental effects
Of the working groups on water for irrigation, salinity, drainage and environmental impacts, drew the following conclusions:
1. The importance of improving the management of the water and the techniques of fertilization to increase the effectiveness of the use and the quality of the waters of return. With regard to the use of fertilizers must pay particular attention to the levels of nitrate and phosphorus, as potential pollutants, the employment of models hidrosalinos, as the Cirfle, for the control of the saline contamination to be useful.
2.-In semiarid climates purified wastewater represent an increase of water resources, but be managed adequately, not only in the cleansing and disinfection, but also in their treatment, to prevent the possible deterioration of facilities and irrigation equipment andparticularly, of the heads.
3. The use of neural networks can be a useful tool for the calculation of climatological parameters, of great importance in agriculture, both to prevent diseases and stomata - case of relative humidity - State, as for the study of the climate in areas where agroclimatic stations are not available and must be interpolated data from stations upcoming.
4.-Climate change directly affects the irrigation, can affect different aspects: can alter the historical series for the calculation of the demands of water or its impact on the ETP, and in the issuance and redemption of CO2. The implementation of sustainable irrigation will contribute to enhance the agricultural activity as a sink of CO2, to reduce erosion and desertification and, consequently, to reduce the negative effects of climate change.
The 29 entries in the irrigation engineering group highlights aspects related to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of irrigation systems, as well as those related to water and energy saving. The following conclusions can be drawn from them:
1.-It should be given greater attention and dedication to the aspects related to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of pools of storage of water for irrigation. In this field the breakage of these infrastructure problems, should be investigated and that the methodology currently used is not oriented rafts of loose materials, waterproof with GEOS, which are those, mostly, used for irrigation.
2.-It has been shown that the coverage of the pools of water with mesh storage of I shading, both supported by anchored reticular structures enclosed, as supported by floating pipes, reduces evaporation in more than 85%, improves the quality of irrigation waterIt reduces the consumption of energy used in the subsequent processes of filtering of water and allows the installation of photovoltaic flexible blankets for the production of electrical energy.
3 It has become apparent that there is a margin of energy saving potential of the order of 20% of its current consumption, and a cost savings of up to 30% of current energy expenditure, savings that can be achieved by making improvements in the design and management of facilities in communities of irrigators,, in the pumping equipment and optimizing electricity rates.
4. For the achievement of these energy savings in the communities of irrigators, a tool for its usefulness could be recommended is the Protocol of energy audits, published by the Idae. Need to update the methodology of calculation of energy efficiency, as well as the values provided for in this Protocol for the energy classification of the communities it has however become apparent.
In addition, the final conclusions among the need of a good relationship between the communities of irrigators and their community members to optimize the management of a scarce and valuable resource such as water. As elements of support for the inventory and characterization of irrigation systems still betting on methods of remote sensing and geographic information systems, by promoting the use of computer between irrigators (web pages, etc), both as a tool for dissemination of knowledge, transfer of technology and data, as for discussion between users and their institutions.
Communications during the Conference have shown growing interest in the fulfilment of the objectives of the water framework directive. For the success and sustainability of new irrigation systems is considered crucial the user participation in the decision-making process, in the planning phase, so that such transformations are carried out according to the ideas and suggestions that are the product of the experience of farmers irrigators.